Fandango Pitcher

The Great Plains Heisey Club

Members from Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska

Fred Harvey and Leavenworth, Kansas

by Jean Will and Mary Cameron

Recently, my job took me to Leavenworth, Kansas. I was invited to stay in the home of HCA Board Member, Jean Will. We had a wonderful time. Jean knows the history of Leavenworth as well as she knows Heisey. When I arrived at her home, the first thing Jean told me was that she wanted to drive me around Leavenworth to see the sights. I had no idea the sight I would see would be the home of Fred Harvey. Fred Harvey had a home in Leavenworth and lived there. Presently, there is a National Fred Harvey Museum in Leavenworth and the Harvey residence is undergoing extensive restoration. Fred Harvey is buried in the Mount Muncie Cemetery in Leavenworth.
After I arrived home, I looked in my old Heisey News and found an article written by Neila Bredehoft in 1980. As a relatively new collector, this information was so interesting to me.

Almost every Heisey collector associates Fred Harvey with much of the amber glass which Heisey produced. If for no other reason, we are indebted to this man, but how much do we know about him other than he ran a chain of restaurants in the Southwest in conjunction with the Santa Fe Railroad?

About two years ago I bought a stack of old American Heritage books at a local flea market and was gratified to find in one of them a short history of Fred Harvey. The following article is excerpted from the fine article "Purveyor to the West" by Lucius Beebe, in AMERICAN HERITAGE, February, 1967, page 28.

Frederick Henry Harvey was born in 1835 in London, England, and immigrated to the United States at the age of 15. He worked in a restaurant in New York and several years later opened his restaurant in St. Louis. This venture apparently failed with the difficulties of businesses during the Civil War. Mr. Harvey then became a mail clerk on the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, the first railroad to have a mobile post office in which mail was sorted en route. Following this, he worked for various railroads in different capacities and also as an ad manager for a Kansas newspaper.

With his various positions on many different railroads, Harvey certainly soon realized the deplorable food and conditions in eating establishments available to the railroad traveler. Depot restaurants were placed at intervals along the right-of-way to allow for approximately 3 stops a day. Passengers hurried to try to obtain food in the customary 20 minutes available for service and eating. Sometimes the restaurant owners bribed the train crew to sound "all aboard" before the 20 allotted minutes were up. Since passengers paid for food in advance, they were forced to leave before eating--the already once paid-for food was then kept and sold again to the next set of passengers.

The article in American Heritage quotes a newspaper article from the Kansas City STAR from 1915 describing one of the alternatives, which I shall quote here: "Many years ago when you went for a trip on the cars, somebody at home kindly put a fried chicken in a shoe-box for you. It was accompanied by a healthy piece of cheese and a varied assortment of hard-boiled eggs and some cake. When everybody in the car got out their lunch baskets with the paper cover and the red-bordered napkins, it was an interesting sight. The bouquet from those lunches hung around the car all day, and the flies wired ahead for their friends to meet them at each station."

Harvey first approached Burlington with the idea for fine restaurants with good food, but they were not interested. He then turned to the Santa Fe, headed by Charles F. Morse, who immediately agreed with-the plan. The first Harvey restaurant was opened in 1876 in the Topeka depot of the Santa Fe.

Word soon passed around that at last there were clean restaurant facilities and restaurants which provided a variety of good food at reasonable prices. The restaurant flourished. Soon the second restaurant was opened in Florence, Kansas. Following this the Railroad made an agreement with Harvey in which they agreed to provide premises and equipment for future restaurants and Harvey was to provide food and service. From then on, the line expanded to include restaurants in Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and California.

Harvey took so much pride in the quality of food and service which his establishments provided that many of his restaurants lost money for some time after they were opened. He once felt that a manager was cutting too many corners because the restaurant did not lose enough money, so he fired him and hired another.

The Railroad supplied Harvey with the best of everything. Food available in his establishments was unknown in that area of the country with only minimal refrigeration facilities. Harvey served fresh Great Lakes fish, Mexican quail and antelope. Harvey managed to acquire the chef from the Palmer House in Chicago for a handsome price.

Other than the food itself, the restaurants were most known for the Harvey Girls. The waitresses who worked for Harvey were each personally interviewed by Mrs. Harvey. She required them to be clean, neat, intelligent, polite, and of good moral character. Many of these girls went on to become brides of ranchers and other early settlers of the West. Will Rogers said of Harvey "He kept the West in food and wives."

Harvey devised a system in which organization was the key ingredient. After the last stop, the train wired ahead telling the restaurant how many passengers would be eating and giving any special requests for food. Porters met the passengers on the depot platform. The Harvey girls took customers' orders, arranged tables, and served coffee, tea or milk. After soup and fish, the manager himself (this was a requirement) made a grand entrance carrying a huge platter filled with steaks or roast which was quickly served by the waitresses. Such elegance and showmanship were unheard of prior to his time. Diners were constantly assured the train would not leave without them.

In the early 1890's, the lengthy meal stops (sometimes over 3 hours) were causing difficulties, so the dining car was born. Fred Harvey naturally took over the Santa Fe's dining car service. Service remained at Harvey's high standards--Irish linen, Sheffield silver and great variety of food.

The following paragraph is quoted directly from the article: "The high-water mark in Santa Fe sumptuousness was to be found aboard a once-a-week, all-Pullman, extra-fare limited between Chicago and Los Angeles inaugurated in 1911 under the name De-Luxe. Aboard it a strictly limited sixty passengers were carried in upholstered surroundings never before experienced in public travel. They slept in private staterooms in individual brass beds instead of berths. Valets and ladies' maids and barbers crouched in the shadow of potted palms ready to spring at any unwary passenger who tried to do anything for himself, Gentlemen passengers received pigskin billfolds as souvenirs of their trip, and at the California border uniformed messengers came aboard with corsages for each lady traveler. For such service a surcharge of twenty-five dollars was exacted--the equivalent in the hard-gold currency of the time of, say, one hundred dollars today (1966). And, of course, the food in the diner was Fred Harvey's."

Harvey style and quality continued, exemplified by the fact that in the mid 30's in Kansas City, the most socially acceptable restaurant was the Harvey Restaurant in Union Station.

Until 1966 ownership of the Harvey Houses was family controlled. Harvey died in 1901 at age 66, At that time his business consisted of 15 hotels, 47 restaurants, 30 dining cars, and a ferryboat crossing San Francisco Bay. After his death, his son Ford managed the business until he, too, died in 1928. His brother Byron Harvey, Sr., took over succeeded by Byron Harvey, Jr. At present (1966) 2 of the founder's grandsons, Daggett & Stewart Harvey are still active in management.

The original intent was to have a Harvey facility every 100 miles along the Santa Fe, Recently the company has diversified away from the Santa Fe Railroad into inns, hotels and restaurants. They are also selling their own brands of foods, especially their special blend of coffee.

The following lists were found listing Fred Harvey Items made by Heisey. Most or all of these have appeared before in Heisey News, but we are reprinting them all together for easier reference.
5/17/33 LIST - CRYSTAL
2351 5,6,7,10 oz. sodas
3304 UNIVERSAL 10 oz. goblet, 4 oz. parfait sherbet
3315 POLONAISE 5 in. comport
3316 BILTMORE saucer champagne
3801 TEXAS PINK grapefruit
3806 mushroom cover
4041 8 oz. oil
4132 insert
4159 10, 21, 42 oz. jugs
4266 5 oz. custard

1/14/37 LIST
1146 10 oz. soda
2052 2.3/4 oz. bar-9 cut flutes, 2 oz. bar-9 cut flutes, 3 oz. bar-9 cut flutes
2351 6 oz. toddy-lO cut flutes, 8 oz. toddy-l1 cut flutes, 8 oz. soda-11 cut flutes, 10 oz. soda-l1 cut flutes, 12 oz. soda-11 cut flutes, 5 oz. soda-badge & band, 8 oz. soda-badge & band, 12 oz. soda-badge
2352 12 oz. soda
2401 8 oz. old fashion--1l cut flutes
2931 10 oz. tumbler-badge & band
3051 12 oz. soda-badge & band
3301 CLARENCE 6 oz. parfait-badge & band
3304 UNIVERSAL pony brandy, cordial, 2 oz. creme de menthe, 4 oz. Sm. Rhine wine, 5 oz. parfait claret, 10 oz. pilsner
3311 VELVEDERE 2, 2 oz. sherries
3312 GAYOSO hollow stem champagne, w/o
3316 BILTMORE pousse cafe, claret
3317 DRAKE 2 oz. sherry-badge & band
3351 MON AMI hollow stem champagne-7 cut flutes
3428 BRITTANY 1 oz. sherry, cocktail
4063 COLONADE cordial-badge & band, claret-badge & band, cocktail-badge & band, saucer champagne-badge & band
4165 3 pt. jug, no handle

3/18/37 LIST - All Items Except Oil Are Labeled "New Band"
2351 5, 8, 12 oz. sodas sham
2401 old fashion sham-11 cut flutes
2930 PLAIN & FANCY 10 oz. tumbler
3051 12 oz. soda
3304 UNIVERSAL parfait
3801 TEXAS PINK low footed grapefruit
4063 COLONADE cordial, claret, cocktail champagne oil & stopper

1214 4 oz. shallow saucer champagne
1216 2 oz. Roman Punch cup

12/19/51 LIST - Updated 10/52
150 ashtray, 7 oz, schoppen
201 8 oz. tumbler
300 PEERLESS 7 oz. schoppen
352 FLAT PANEL 4 oz. oil
353 MEDIUM FLAT PANEL hall boy jug, 10 in. hall boy tray
393 NARROW FLUTE oyster cocktail glass (bar)
393 NARROW FLUTE 4 oz, low foot sherbet
411 TUDOR sugar dispenser
600 ashtray, candlestick
602 7 oz. schoppen, 12 oz. ice tea
602 7 oz. schoppen
803 BEAUMONT goblet (also listed as FIFTH AVENUE)
2351 6 oz. mineral water glass, 7 oz. soda, 10 oz. soda
2401 5 oz. juice glass
3304 UNIVERSAL 4 oz. parfait-crested
4052 NATIONAL goblet-crested sherbet-crested
4059 water bottle-plain, water bottle-Santa Fe crest, water bottle-crested, lines, cut neck
4165 3 pt. jug, no handle

12/4/39 LIST
3304 UNIVERSAL parfait
3419 COGNAC brandy inhaler
4049 hot whiskey
4059 water bottle

12/10/48 LIST
12 12 salt
201 8 oz. tumbler
337 TOURAINE 5 oz. juice glass, optic, 5 oz. parfait
337 TOURAINE 4 oz. sherbet glass, optic
352 FLAT PANEL 4 oz, oil
353 MEDIUM FLAT PANEL 10 oz. low, 4 oz. low foot sherbet, 10 in. hall boy tray, 1 qt. hail boy jug
398 5 in. nappy, no star
586 12 oz. ice tea glass, optic
1125 7 in. plate
1184 YEOMAN 6 in. plate
1217 finger bowl, star bottom
4059 plain water bottle.
4165 3 pt. jug, no handle

12/19/51 LIST, Updated 10/29/52
This list was the same as the one dated 12/10/48 except it omitted the 337 Touraine 5 oz. parfait and the 353 4 oz. low foot sherbet.

Also found was an undated list which included many crystal and amber items found in previous listings. The following additional item was included:
1509 QUEEN ANN 7 in. triplex relish, amber

At least three different monograms were used for Fred Harvey items. Each uses the Initials FH in a different manner.

We have no way of now knowing exactly when these monograms were used. They have also not been seen on Harvey's amber items, although they certainly could have been etched.

Taking them in reverse order: C-I still have not seen this on anything but the 2351 10 oz soda; B-on 3304 Universal grapefruit, also has now been seen on a Universal Goblet; A-on 4052 National goblet, 3304 Universal grapefruit and also now seen on a Universal Goblet. "A" is by far the most elaborate and was designed by Rod Irwin. When you see the actual etching you scarcely notice the initials because it is so "busy".

The Santa Fe crest has been seen on a 2351 soda, 4058 water bottle with cut flutes, and a 3304 Universal grapefruit which had only the border-no crest. It was obviously also used for a cordial since we have seen the original drawing, but it did not indicate the number of the cordial. It may be likely the 4063 Colonade since it is known to be decorated.

Lists for Fred Harvey include mention of "badge and band", "new band", and "crested" when describing decorated ware. No illustrations accompany, unfortunately, since these are typed lists only. "Badge & band" may refer to the Santa Fe etching and "Crested" to the Fred Harvey "A" etch, but there is no positive way of knowing at this time.

The following lists are taken from the Fred Harvey lists and include the pieces which were listed as decorated:

1/14/37 Badge & Band
2351 5 oz. soda, 8 oz. soda, 12 oz. soda (badge only)
2931 10 oz. tumbler
3051 12 oz. soda
3301 CLARENCE 6 oz. parfait
3317 DRAKE 2 oz. sherry
4063 COLONADE cordial, claret, cocktail, saucer champagne

3/18/37 New Band
2351 5, 8, 12 oz. sodas
2401 old fashion, 11 cut flutes
2930 10 oz. tumbler
3051 12 oz. soda
3304 UNIVERSAL parfait
3801 low foot grapefruit
4063 COLONADE cordial, claret, cocktail, saucer champagne

Whether "Badge & Band" and "New Band" are the same or different is unclear. The following list was dated 12/19/51 and labeled "Crested":
3304 UNIVERSAL 4 oz, parfait
4052 NATIONAL goblet, sherbet
4059 water bottle-Santa Fe Crest
4059 water bottle, crested, lines, cut neck.

Other Web Sites of Interest
Harvey Houses
National Fred Harvey Museum